Friday, 25 May 2012

Banking Terms

AIDB- All India Development Bank

ATM- Automated Teller Machine is a machine uses a computer that verifi es your account information and PIN (Personal Identification Number) and will dispense or deposit funds per your request)Annuity- Fixed amount of cash to be received every year for a specified period of time

Asset/Liability Risk- A risk that current obligations/ liabilities cannot be met with current assets.
Assets- Things that one owns which have value in financial terms.

Banking Cash Transaction Tax (BCTT) - BCTT is a small tax on cash withdrawal from bank exceeding a particular amount in a single day

Bank Credit – Bank Credit includes Term Loans, Cash Credit, Overdrafts, Bills purchased & discounted, Bank Guarantees, Letters of Guarantee, Letters of credit.

Bank Debits - Sum of the value of all cheques and other instruments charged against the deposited funds of a bank’s customer.

Bank Rate - Interest rate paid by major banks if they borrow from RBI, the Central Bank of the country.

Bank Statement - A periodic record of a customer’s account that is issued at regular intervals, showing all transactions recorded for the period in question

Basis Point- Basis Point is one-hundredth of one percentage point (i.e. 0.01%), normally used for indicating spreads or cost of finance.

Balance of Payment (BoP) – BoP is a statement showing the country’s trade and financial transactions (all economic transactions), in terms of net outstanding receivable or payable from other countries, with the rest of the world for a period of time

BR Act - Banking Regulation Act

Cash reserve Ratio (CRR) - CRR is the amount of funds that the banks have to keep with the RBI. If the central bank decides to increase the CRR, the available amount with the banks comes down

CAD- current account deficit

Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) – CRR is a ratio of total capital divided by risk-weighted assets and risk-weighted off-balance sheet items.

Cash Credit (CC) - An arrangement whereby the bank gives a short-term loan against the self-liquidating security

Certificate of Deposit (CD) - CD is a negotiable instrument issued by a bank evidencing time deposit

Cheque - A written order on a bank instrument for payment of a certain amount of money.

C-D ratio- Credit- Deposit Ratio

Corporate Banking - Banking services for large firms

CRAR - Capital to Risk-Weighted Assets Ratio

Credit Crunch - Fall in supply of credit even though there is sufficient demand for it

Cross default - Two loan agreements connected by a clause that allows one lender to recall the loan if the borrower defaults with another, and vice versa.

Deposit: A check or cash that is put into your bank account.

Endorse: To sign the back of your check before cashing or depositing it, as proof that you are the person the check was written out to.

Equitable mortgage - Mortgage under which one still owns the property which is security for the mortgage. The owner can occupy or live in the property

Exchange Rate - The rate at which one currency may be exchanged for another

FRNs - Floating Rate Notes

Fixed assets - Assets such as land, buildings, machinery or property used in operating a business that will not be consumed or converted into cash during the current accounting period

Fixed Rate - A predetermined rate of interest applied to the principal of a loan or credit agreement

IFSC Code - Indian Financial System Code or IFSC code is an eleven character code assigned by RBI to identify every bank branches uniquely, that are participating in NEFT system in India

Liquidation – Liquidation is divestment of all the assets of a firm so that the firm ceases to exist

Liquidity- The extent to which or the ease with which an asset may quickly be converted into cash with the least administrative and other costs

Letter of Credit (LC) - A formal document issued by a bank on behalf of a customer, stating the conditions under which the bank will honour the commitments of the customer

Line of Credit - pre-approved credit facility (usually for one year) enabling a bank customer to borrow up to the specified maximum amount at any time during the relevant period of time.

MICR- Magnetic Ink Character Recognition or MICR is the bottom line on all checks. It is printed using a special font.

Monthly Statement: statement received by customers at the end of the month about the account’s activity (what went in and what came out) from the previous month.

NEFT- national electronic funds transfer

Non Performing Assets (NPA) - When due payments in credit facilities remain overdue above a specified period, then such credit facilities are classified as NPA.

NBFCs- Non-banking Finance Companies

NHB- National Housing Bank

Overdraw: To write a check for more money than what is present in the account. Usually there is a fee (known as NSF/non-sufficient funds)

Principal- Principal is the amount of debt that must be repaid. Also means a person who deals in securities on his own account and not as a broker

Prime Lending Rate (PLR) - The rate of interest charged on loans by banks to their most creditworthy customers

PSB - Public Sector Bank

Repo rate- the rate at which the RBI lends money to banks

Reverse repo rate- Reverse Repo rate is the rate at which the RBI borrows money from commercial banks

SCBs - Scheduled Commercial Banks

Statutory Liquidity Ratio- SLR is Statutory Liquidity Ratio. It’s the percentage of Demand and Time Maturities that banks need to have in any or combination of the following forms:
i) Cash
ii) Gold valued at a price not exceeding the current market price,
iii) Unencumbered approved securities (G Secs or Gilts come under this) valued at a price as specified by the RBI from time to time

Standby Letter of Credit - A guarantee issued by a bank, on behalf of a buyer that protects the seller against non-payment for goods shipped to the buyer

Securitization - Securitization is a process of transformation of a bank loan into tradable securities
Selective Credit Control (SCC) - Control of credit flow to borrowers dealing in some essential commodities to discourage hoarding and black-marketing

Tier 1 Capital - Refers to core capital consisting of Capital, Statutory Reserves, Revenue and other reserves, Capital Reserves (excluding Revaluation Reserves) and unallocated surplus/ profit but excluding accumulated losses, investments in subsidiaries and other intangible assets

Tier 2 Capital - Comprises Property Revaluation Reserves, Undisclosed Reserves, Hybrid Capital, Subordinated Term Debt and General Provisions. This is Supplementary Capital.
Withdrawal: To take money out of your bank account. To make a withdrawal is the opposite of making a deposit


1. First Governor of RBI was – 
a) Hilton Young
b) Paul Samuelson
c) C.D.Deskmukh
d) O.A Smith
Ans. d) O.A Smith

2. At the time of nationalization who was the Governor of RBI-
a) O.A Smith
b) J.B Taylor
c) C.D. Deshmukh
d) K.C.Neogy
Ans. c) C.D. Deshmukh 

3. The RBI was nationalized in the year –
Ans. a)1949 

4. The general superintendence and director of the bank is entrusted to central board of directors of –
a)10 members
b) 20 members
c) 25 members
d)30 members
Ans. b) 20 members 

5. Paper currencies of our country are issued by RBI under –
a) Section- 22 of the RBI act -1934
b) Section- 24 of the RBI act -1934
c) Section- 28 of the RBI act -1934
d) None of these
Ans. a) Section- 22 of the RBI act -1934 

6. One rupee currency notes bear the signature of - 
a) PM
b) President of India
c) Governor of RBI
d) Finance Secretary of India
Ans. d) Finance Secretary of India

7. Ten rupees notes bear the signature of –
a) President
b) Finance Minister
c) Secretary of Ministry of finance
d) Governor of RBI
Ans. d) Governor of RBI

8. Which of the following is the banker of the banks –
b) SBI
c) RBI
Ans. c) RBI 

9. In which of the following banks one can’t open a personal account –
a) Co-Operative Banks
b) Commercial banks
c) Regional Rural Banks
d) RBI
Ans. d) RBI

10. Which of the following banks is the banker to the government –
a) SBI
c) RBI
Ans. c) RBI 

11. Which of the followings are the function of RBI –
a) Regulation of currency and flowing of credit system
b) Maintaining exchange values of rupee
c) Formulating monetary policy of India
d) All of these
Ans. d) All of these

12. Credit rationing in India is done by –
a) SBI
b) LIC
c) UTI
d) RBI
Ans. d) RBI

13. The first bank of India was –
a) Bank of Hindusthan
b) Imperial Bank
c) Bank of Bengal
d) Oudh Commercial Bank
Ans. a) Bank of Hindusthan 

14. The first Indian fully liability and managed bank was –
a) PNB
b) Traders Bank
c) SBI
d) 0 Presidency Bank of India
Ans. a) PNB 

15. The rates at which the RBI extends credit to the commercial bank is called –
a) Bank Rate
b) Reverse Repo Rate
c)Interest Rate
d) None of these
Ans. a) Bank Rate 

16. In which of the following is not the any element of monetary policy of  RBI –
a) Bank rate
b) Open Market Operation
c) Public Expenditure
d) All of these
Ans. c) Public Expenditure 

17. 100 rupees note bears the signature of –
a) Governor of RBI
b) PM
c) Finance Secretary of India
d) Chairman of Finance Commission
Ans. a) Governor of RBI 

18. Which of the following is the last lender of the last resort of commercial bank-
a) SBI
b) Union Govt.
c) RBI
d) UTI
Ans. c) RBI 

19. The RBI is agent of central government and of all state government except –
a) Bihar
b) Goa
c) Jammu and Kashmir
d) Mizoram
Ans. c) Jammu and Kashmir 

20. Controller of credit of commercial banks in our country is –
a) RBI
c) ICI
Ans. a) RBI 

21. The Banking Concept in India was first developed by –
a) British
b) French
c) Indian
d) None of these
Ans. a) British 

22. The rate at which RBI gives short term credit to the commercial banks against government securities with buy back provision is called –
a) Bank Rate
b) Repo Rate
c) Reverse repo rate
d) Interest rate
Ans. b) Repo Rate

23. The rate at which RBI takes loans from commercial banks is called –
a)  Repo Rate
b) Reverse Repo Rate
c) Bank Rate
d) Interest Rate
Ans. b) Reverse Repo Rate 

24. At present the Reverse Repo Rate of RBI is (As of 25th Nov) –
a) 8.25
b) 7.25
c) 7.50
Ans. d)8.50

25. Bank rate of RBI is also known as –
a) Interest Rate
b) Discount Rate
c) fed rate
d) bid rate
Ans. b) Discount Rate

26. Which of the following is not the any element of quantitative credit control policy of RBI –
a) CRR
b) SLR
c) Selective credit control
d) open market operation.
Ans. c) Selective credit control

27. At present CRR of RBI is –
a) 6%
b) 7.5%
c) 8.5%
d) none of these
Ans. a) 6%

28. The limitation of CRR of RBI is –
a)3-10 %
b) 3-15%
c) 15-38%
d) 10-25%
Ans. b) 3-15%

29. The apex organization of Indian money market is –
c) RBI
Ans. c) RBI

30. If the cash reserve is lowered by RBI, what will be its effect on credit creation –
a) Decrease
b) Increase
c) No Change
d) None of these
Ans. b) Increase

31. The expansion of money supply of an economy depends on –
a) The policy of CRR
b) The bank rate policy
c) Open market operation
d) All of these
Ans. d) All of these

32. Among the following who are eligible to benefit from the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act? –
a) Adult Members of only the scheduled caste and scheduled tribe holders
b) Adult of below poverty line household
c) Adult members of household of all backward community
d) adult members of any rural household
e) None of these
Ans. d) adult members of any rural household 

33. Which of the following banks merged with Punjab national banks in 1993 –
a) New bank of India
b) Central Bank of India
c) Imperial Bank of India
d) Common bank of India
Ans. a) New bank of India

34. A currency, the exchange values of which is expected to remain stable due to strong performance by it’s economy. This currency is –
a) Soft Currency
b) Hot currency
c) Fiat currency
d) None of these (Hard Currency)
Ans. d) None of these (Hard Currency)

35. The Reserve Bank of India issues under the following note issue method? –
a) Proportional Reserve System
b) Minimum Reserve System
c) Maximum Reserve System
d) Fixed Fiduciary System
Ans. b) Minimum Reserve System

36. What is a Scheduled Bank? –
a) A bank having Rs 10 Crore deposits
b) A bank having Rs 100 Crore deposits
c) A bank having Rs 5 Crore deposits
d) A bank included in the second schedule of RBI act 1934.
Ans. d) A bank included in the second schedule of RBI act 1934.

37. How many languages are used on a Ten Rupee note? –
a) 2
b) 7
c) 10
d) 15
e) 16
Ans. d) 15

38. The place where bankers meet and settle their mutual claims and accounts is known as –
a) Treasury
b) Clearing House
c) Dumping House
d) Collection centre
Ans. b) Clearing House

39. The largest Public sector bank in India –
a) SBI
b) PNB
c) RBI
Ans. a) SBI

40. Which of the following is not the function of RBI –
a) Banker’s bank
b) Banker to public
c) custodian of foreign exchange
d) Bankers to Govt.
Ans. b) Banker to public

41. Who is responsible for the collection and publication of monetary and financial information-  
a) Finance Commission
b) Finance ministry
c) RBI
d) Auditor and Comptroller general of India
Ans. c) RBI

42. Which of the following regulatory authority  to oversee the new issues, protect the investment and investors, promote the development of Capital Market and regulate the working of Stock Exchange –
a) UTI b) IRDA
c) RBI
e) None of these
Ans. d) SEBI

43. After a long span of 22 years, RBI released Rs.1000/- currency note for circulation in –
a) 2000
b) 2002
c) 2005
d) 2008
Ans. a) 2000

44. Regional Rural banks are working in all states of the country except –
a) Sikkim and Goa
b) Sikkim and Manipur
c) Manipur and Nagaland
d) Jammu and Kashmir
Ans. a) Sikkim and Goa

45. The National Housing Bank  is a subsidiary of –
a) RBI
d) UTI
Ans. a) RBI

46. At present the ceiling of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in insurance sector in India is –
a) 26%
b) 49%
c) 51%
d) 74%
Ans. a) 26%

47. Rs. 25 Paisa was ceased by the Govt of India on –
a) 30th june 2011
b) 30th July 2011
c) 1st January 2011
d) 1st July 2011
Ans. a) 30th june 2011

48. Initial Public Offering (IPO) is associated with –
a) RBI
b) Stock Exchange
d) Indian Postal Service
Ans. b) Stock Exchange

49. The Basic regulatory authority for mutual funds and stock markets lies with the –
a) Government of India
b) Reserve Bank of India
c) Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)
d) Stock Exchange
Ans. c) Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)

50. Monetary policy Referes to the policy of –
a) Money Lenders
b) Government
c) Commercial Banks
d) RBI
Ans. d) RBI

Thursday, 24 May 2012

Syndicate Bank Recruitment of 1000 Probationary Clerks

Syndicate Bank invites applications for the post of Probationary Clerks from Indian citizens who have taken the Common Written Examination for Clerical Cadre conducted by IBPS in Nov./Dec.2011 and have a valid Score card issued by IBPS subject to fulfillment of other eligibility criteria.
For details regarding vacancies and cut-off marks State/UT-wise, category-wise, eligibility criteria, fees/intimation charges, application procedure, selection procedure, reservation/relaxation etc., please visit the Bank’s website between 01.06.2012 and 15.06.2012.
The Clerical recruitment would be on State/UT-wise basis. It will therefore be necessary that candidates apply for vacancies of State/UT from which they have appeared for the Common Written Examination in which they have qualified.
Candidates should possess proficiency in the Official /Regional Language of the State/UT for which vacancies he/she wishes to apply (To read, write & speak).


Payment of Application Fees at Syndicate Bank Branches           01.06.2012 To 15.06.2012
Opening date for Online Registration                                           01.06.2012
Last Date for Online Registration
(Including for candidates from far-flung areas )                            15.06.2012
The number of vacancies and also the number of reserved vacancies is provisional and may vary according to actual requirements of the Bank.

Monday, 21 May 2012

White Paper on Black Money

Placed below is a link for White Paper on Black Money:

Village Grain Banks in Karnataka

After the transfer of the Village Grain Banks(VGB) Scheme to the Department of Food & Public Distribution by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs in November 2004, this Department in February 2006 circulated guidelines of the Scheme to all States/ Union Territories including Karnataka for sending proposals for establishment of VGBs as per the guidelines. The Government of Karnataka in September 2006 conveyed that the scheme would not be applicable to the State as there are no chronically food scarce areas in the State and also no tribal and hilly areas which are inaccessible during periods of drought and floods. Hence, the Central Government has not sanctioned/released funds to the Government of Karnataka for establishment of VGBs in the State till date. The guidelines issued by the Government gives, inter alia, details of the scope and objectives of the scheme, the areas/regions where the Grain Banks can be established, the organisations eligible to establish the VGBs the methodology of implementation, funding pattern, monitoring and evaluation. As per the guidelines Grain Banks are to be established in food scarce areas such as drought prone, hot and cold desert, tribal and inaccessible hilly areas etc. New Delhi

Friday, 18 May 2012

Bank Accounts with Zero Balance

With a view to achieve the objective of greater financial inclusion, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) issued instructions to all Scheduled Commercial Banks in November 2005, to make available a basic banking ‘no-frills’ account either with ‘nil’ or very low minimum balances as well as charges that would make such accounts accessible to vast sections of population. As per RBI, the number of no-frills accounts outstanding with Public Sector Banks (excluding Regional Rural Banks) and Private Sector Banks at end of March 2012, is 1032.06 lakhs. 

Functioning of RRBs

The Government reviews the performance of Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) on an ongoing basis. The Committee constituted by Government under the chairmanship of Dr. K.C. Chakrabarty on Capital to Risk Weighted Assets Ratio (CRAR) has reviewed the performance and the financial position of Regional Rural Banks (RRBs). After assessment of financial position of RRBs the Committee in April, 2010 inter-alia recommended recapitalization of 40 RRBs to improve their CRAR. 

In view of the recommendations of Dr. Chakrabarty Committee, an amount of Rs. 66.49 crore was released to 5 RRBs during 2010-11 and Rs.402.43 crore has been release to 19 RRBs during 2011-12 as the release of Central Government share is subject to the release of proportionate share by concerned State Government and sponsor bank. 

As per information reported by NABARD, the total loan issued by RRBs have increased from Rs.56,079 crore during 2009-10 to Rs.71,724.19 crore during 2010-11 registering a growth of 27.89%.

Agricultural Credit

The Government has taken several policy measures from time to time to increase the availability of credit to the rural areas in general and farmers in particular. These inter-alia include the following: 

• In terms of Reserve Bank’s extant guidelines on lending to priority sector, a target of 40 per cent of Adjusted Net Bank Credit (ANBC) or Credit Equivalent amount of Off-Balance Sheet Exposures (OBE), whichever is higher, as on March 31 of the previous year, has been mandated for lending to the priority sector by domestic scheduled commercial banks, both in the public and private sector. Within this, a sub-target of 18 per cent of ANBC of Credit Equivalent amount of OBE, whichever is higher, as on March 31 of the previous year, has been mandated for lending to agriculture sector.

• The Government has been setting an annual target for the flow of credit to the agriculture sector. The agriculture target for 2012-13 is fixed at Rs.5,75,000 crore against the target of Rs.4,75,000 crore in 2011-12.

• The Interest Subvention Scheme is being implemented by the Government of India since 2006-07 to make short-term crop loans upto Rs.3 lakh for a period of one year available to farmers at the interest rate of 7 per cent per annum. The Government of India has since 2009-10 been providing additional interest subvention to prompt payee farmers. The additional subvention was 1% in 2009-10, 2% in 2010-11 and 3% in 2011-12. The Government has in the Budget speech of 2012-13 announced continuation of the scheme in 2012-13. 

• RBI has also advised banks to waive margin/security requirements for agricultural loans upto Rs.1,00,000. 

• The Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme (ADWDRS), 2008 was implemented by the Government. This Scheme has de-clogged the lines of credit that were clogged due to the debt burden on the farmers and make the farmers eligible for fresh loans. Under the scheme Rs.52,275.55 crore has been released by the Government through RBI and NABARD to give benefit to 3.45 crore farmers. 

• Banks have been advised to issue Kisan Credit Cards (KCC) to all eligible farmers and General Credit Cards (GCC) to non-farmers. A new scheme for KCC has been circulated by NABARD which provides for KCC as an ATM card which can be used at ATM/ Point of sale (POS) terminals. 

Wednesday, 16 May 2012

Important Banking terminologies

  • Accrued interest: Interest due from issue date or from the last coupon payment date to the settlement date. Accrued interest on bonds must be added to their purchase price.
  • Arbitrage: Buying a financial instrument in one market in order to sell the same instrument at a higher price in another market.
  • Ask Price: The lowest price at which a dealer is willing to sell a given security.
  • Asset-Backed Securities (ABS): A type of security that is backed by a pool of bank loans, leases, and other assets. Most ABS are backed by auto loans and credit cards – these issues are very similar to mortgage-backed securities.
  • At-the-money: The exercise price of a derivative that is closest to the market price of the underlying instrument.
  • Basis Point: One hundredth of 1%. A measure normally used in the statement of interest rate e.g., a change from 5.75% to 5.81% is a change of 6 basis points.
  • Bear Markets: Unfavorable markets associated with falling prices and investor pessimism.
  • Bid-ask Spread: The difference between a dealer’s bid and ask price.
  • Bid Price: The highest price offered by a dealer to purchase a given security.
  • Blue Chips: Blue chips are unsurpassed in quality and have a long and stable record of earnings and dividends. They are issued by large and well-established firms that have impeccable financial credentials.
  • Bond: Publicly traded long-term debt securities, issued by corporations and governments, whereby the issuer agrees to pay a fixed amount of interest over a specified period of time and to repay a fixed amount of principal at maturity.
  • Book Value: The amount of stockholders’ equity in a firm equals the amount of the firm’s assets minus the firm’s liabilities and preferred stock
  • Broker: Individuals licensed by stock exchanges to enable investors to buy and sell securities.
  • Brokerage Fee: The commission charged by a broker.
  • Bull Markets: Favorable markets associated with rising prices and investor optimism.
  • Call Option: The right to buy the underlying securities at a specified exercise price on or before a specified expiration date.
  • Callable Bonds: Bonds that give the issuer the right to redeem the bonds before their stated maturity.
  • Capital Gain: The amount by which the proceeds from the sale of a capital asset exceed its original purchase price.
  • Capital Markets: The market in which long-term securities such as stocks and bonds are bought and sold.
  • Certificate of Deposits (CDs): Savings instrument in which funds must remain on deposit for a specified period, and premature withdrawals incur interest penalties.
  • Closed-end (Mutual) Fund: A fund with a fixed number of shares issued, and all trading is done between investors in the open market. The share prices are determined by market prices instead of their net asset value.
  • Collateral: A specific asset pledged against possible default on a bond. Mortgage bonds are backed by claims on property. Collateral trusts bonds are backed by claims on other securities. Equipment obligation bonds are backed by claims on equipment.
  • Commercial Paper: Short-term and unsecured promissory notes issued by corporations with very high credit standings.
  • Common Stock: Equity investment representing ownership in a corporation; each share represents a fractional ownership interest in the firm.
  • Compound Interest: Interest paid not only on the initial deposit but also on any interest accumulated from one period to the next.
  • Contract Note: A note which must accompany every security transaction which contains information such as the dealer’s name (whether he is acting as principal or agent) and the date of contract.
  • Controlling Shareholder: Any person who is, or group of persons who together are, entitled to exercise or control the exercise of a certain amount of shares in a company at a level (which differs by jurisdiction) that triggers a mandatory general offer, or more of the voting power at general meetings of the issuer, or who is or are in a position to control the composition of a majority of the board of directors of the issuer.
  • Convertible Bond: A bond with an option, allowing the bondholder to exchange the bond for a specified number of shares of common stock in the firm. A conversion price is the specified value of the shares for which the bond may be exchanged. The conversion premium is the excess of the bond’s value over the conversion price.
  • Corporate Bond: Long-term debt issued by private corporations.
  • Coupon: The feature on a bond that defines the amount of annual interest income.
  • Coupon Frequency: The number of coupon payments per year.
  • Coupon Rate: The annual rate of interest on the bond’s face value that a bond’s issuer promises to pay the bondholder. It is the bond’s interest payment per dollar of par value.
  • Covered Warrants: Derivative call warrants on shares which have been separately deposited by the issuer so that they are available for delivery upon exercise.
  • Credit Rating: An assessment of the likelihood of an individual or business being able to meet its financial obligations. Credit ratings are provided by credit agencies or rating agencies to verify the financial strength of the issuer for investors.
  • Currency Board: A monetary system in which the monetary base is fully backed by foreign reserves. Any changes in the size of the monetary base has to be fully matched by corresponding changes in the foreign reserves.
  • Current Yield: A return measure that indicates the amount of current income a bond provides relative to its market price. It is shown as: Coupon Rate divided by Price multiplied by 100%.
  • Custody of Securities: Registration of securities in the name of the person to whom a bank is accountable, or in the name of the bank’s nominee; plus deposition of securities in a designated account with the bank’s bankers or with any other institution providing custodial services.
  • Default Risk: The possibility that a bond issuer will default ie, fail to repay principal and interest in a timely manner.
  • Derivative Call (Put) Warrants: Warrants issued by a third party which grant the holder the right to buy (sell) the shares of a listed company at a specified price.
  • Derivative Instrument: Financial instrument whose value depends on the value of another asset.
  • Discount Bond: A bond selling below par, as interest in-lieu to the bondholders.
  • Diversification: The inclusion of a number of different investment vehicles in a portfolio in order to increase returns or be exposed to less risk.
  • Duration: A measure of bond price volatility, it captures both price and reinvestment risks to indicate how a bond will react to different interest rate environments.
  • Earnings: The total profits of a company after taxation and interest.
  • Earnings per Share (EPS): The amount of annual earnings available to common stockholders as stated on a per share basis.
  • Earnings Yield: The ratio of earnings to price (E/P). The reciprocal is price earnings ratio (P/E).
  • Equity: Ownership of the company in the form of shares of common stock.
  • Equity Call Warrants: Warrants issued by a company which give the holder the right to acquire new shares in that company at a specified price and for a specified period of time.
  • Ex-dividend (XD): A security which no longer carries the right to the most recently declared dividend or the period of time between the announcement of the dividend and the payment (usually two days before the record date). For transactions during the ex-dividend period, the seller will receive the dividend, not the buyer. Ex-dividend status is usually indicated in newspapers with an (x) next to the stock’s or unit trust’s name.
  • Face Value/ Nominal Value: The value of a financial instrument as stated on the instrument. Interest is calculated on face/nominal value.
  • Fixed-income Securities: Investment vehicles that offer a fixed periodic return.
  • Fixed Rate Bonds: Bonds bearing fixed interest payments until maturity date.
  • Floating Rate Bonds: Bonds bearing interest payments that are tied to current interest rates.
  • Fundamental Analysis: Research to predict stock value that focuses on such determinants as earnings and dividends prospects, expectations for future interest rates and risk evaluation of the firm.
  • Future Value: The amount to which a current deposit will grow over a period of time when it is placed in an account paying compound interest.
  • Future Value of an Annuity: The amount to which a stream of equal cash flows that occur in equal intervals will grow over a period of time when it is placed in an account paying compound interest.
  • Futures Contract: A commitment to deliver a certain amount of some specified item at some specified date in the future.
  • Hedge: A combination of two or more securities into a single investment position for the purpose of reducing or eliminating risk.
  • Income: The amount of money an individual receives in a particular time period.
  • Index Fund: A mutual fund that holds shares in proportion to their representation in a market index, such as the S&P 500.
  • Initial Public Offering (IPO): An event where a company sells its shares to the public for the first time. The company can be referred to as an IPO for a period of time after the event.
  • Inside Information: Non-public knowledge about a company possessed by its officers, major owners, or other individuals with privileged access to information.
  • Insider Trading: The illegal use of non-public information about a company to make profitable securities transactions
  • Intrinsic Value: The difference of the exercise price over the market price of the underlying asset.
  • Investment: A vehicle for funds expected to increase its value and/or generate positive returns.
  • Investment Adviser: A person who carries on a business which provides investment advice with respect to securities and is registered with the relevant regulator as an investment adviser.
  • IPO price: The price of share set before being traded on the stock exchange. Once the company has gone Initial Public Offering, the stock price is determined by supply and demand.
  • Junk Bond: High-risk securities that have received low ratings (i.e. Standard & Poor’s BBB rating or below; or Moody’s BBB rating or below) and as such, produce high yields, so long as they do not go into default.
  • Leverage Ratio: Financial ratios that measure the amount of debt being used to support operations and the ability of the firm to service its debt.
  • Libor: The London Interbank Offered Rate (or LIBOR) is a daily reference rate based on the interest rates at which banks offer to lend unsecured funds to other banks in the London wholesale money market (or interbank market). The LIBOR rate is published daily by the British Banker’s Association and will be slightly higher than the London Interbank Bid Rate (LIBID), the rate at which banks are prepared to accept deposits.
  • Limit Order: An order to buy (sell) securities which specifies the highest (lowest) price at which the order is to be transacted.
  • Limited Company: The passive investors in a partnership, who supply most of the capital and have liability limited to the amount of their capital contributions.
  • Liquidity: The ability to convert an investment into cash quickly and with little or no loss in value.
  • Listing: Quotation of the Initial Public Offering company’s shares on the stock exchange for public trading.
  • Listing Date: The date on which Initial Public Offering stocks are first traded on the stock exchange by the public
  • Margin Call: A notice to a client that it must provide money to satisfy a minimum margin requirement set by an Exchange or by a bank / broking firm.
  • Market Capitalization: The product of the number of the company’s outstanding ordinary shares and the market price of each share.
  • Market Maker: A dealer who maintains an inventory in one or more stocks and undertakes to make continuous two-sided quotes.
  • Market Order: An order to buy or an order to sell securities which is to be executed at the prevailing market price.
  • Money Market: Market in which short-term securities are bought and sold.
  • Mutual Fund: A company that invests in and professionally manages a diversified portfolio of securities and sells shares of the portfolio to investors.
  • Net Asset Value: The underlying value of a share of stock in a particular mutual fund; also used with preferred stock.
  • Offer for Sale: An offer to the public by, or on behalf of, the holders of securities already in issue.
  • Offer for Subscription: The offer of new securities to the public by the issuer or by someone on behalf of the issuer.
  • Open-end (Mutual) Fund: There is no limit to the number of shares the fund can issue. The fund issues new shares of stock and fills the purchase order with those new shares. Investors buy their shares from, and sell them back to, the mutual fund itself. The share prices are determined by their net asset value.
  • Open Offer: An offer to current holders of securities to subscribe for securities whether or not in proportion to their existing holdings.
  • Option: A security that gives the holder the right to buy or sell a certain amount of an underlying financial asset at a specified price for a specified period of time.
  • Oversubscribed: When an Initial Public Offering has more applications than actual shares available. Investors will often apply for more shares than required in anticipation of only receiving a fraction of the requested number. Investors and underwriters will often look to see if an IPO is oversubscribed as an indication of the public’s perception of the business potential of the IPO company.
  • Par Bond: A bond selling at par (i.e. at its face value).
  • Par Value: The face value of a security.
  • Perpetual Bonds: Bonds which have no maturity date.
  • Placing: Obtaining subscriptions for, or the sale of, primary market, where the new securities of issuing companies are initially sold.
  • Portfolio: A collection of investment vehicles assembled to meet one or more investment goals.
  • Preference Shares: A corporate security that pays a fixed dividend each period. It is senior to ordinary shares but junior to bonds in its claims on corporate income and assets in case of bankruptcy.
  • Premium (Warrants): The difference of the market price of a warrant over its intrinsic value.
  • Premium Bond: Bond selling above par.
  • Present Value: The amount to which a future deposit will discount back to present when it is depreciated in an account paying compound interest.
  • Present Value of an Annuity: The amount to which a stream of equal cash flows that occur in equal intervals will discount back to present when it is depreciated in an account paying compound interest.
  • Price/Earnings Ratio (P/E): The measure to determine how the market is pricing the company’s common stock. The price/earnings (P/E) ratio relates the company’s earnings per share (EPS) to the market price of its stock.
  • Privatization: The sale of government-owned equity in nationalized industry or other commercial enterprises to private investors.
  • Prospectus: A detailed report published by the Initial Public Offering company, which includes all terms and conditions, application procedures, IPO prices etc, for the IPO
  • Put Option: The right to sell the underlying securities at a specified exercise price on of before a specified expiration date.
  • Rate of Return: A percentage showing the amount of investment gain or loss against the initial investment.
  • Real Interest Rate: The net interest rate over the inflation rate. The growth rate of purchasing power derived from an investment.
  • Redemption Value: The value of a bond when redeemed.
  • Reinvestment Value: The rate at which an investor assumes interest payments made on a bond which can be reinvested over the life of that security.
  • Relative Strength Index (RSI): A stock’s price that changes over a period of time relative to that of a market index such as the Standard & Poor’s 500, usually measured on a scale from 1 to 100, 1 being the worst and 100 being the best.
  • Repurchase Agreement: An arrangement in which a security is sold and later bought back at an agreed price and time.
  • Resistance Level: A price at which sellers consistently outnumber buyers, preventing further price rises.
  • Return: Amount of investment gain or loss.
  • Rights Issue: An offer by way of rights to current holders of securities that allows them to subscribe for securities in proportion to their existing holdings.
  • Risk-Averse, Risk-Neutral, Risk-Taking:
    Risk-averse describes an investor who requires greater return in exchange for greater risk.
    Risk-neutral describes an investor who does not require greater return in exchange for greater risk.
    Risk-taking describes an investor who will accept a lower return in exchange for greater risk.
  • Senior Bond: A bond that has priority over other bonds in claiming assets and dividends.
  • Short Hedge: A transaction that protects the value of an asset held by taking a short position in a futures contract.
  • Settlement: Conclusion of a securities transaction when a customer pays a broker/dealer for securities purchased or delivered, securities sold, and receives from the broker the proceeds of a sale.
  • Short Position: Investors sell securities in the hope that they will decrease in value and can be bought at a later date for profit.
  • Short Selling: The sale of borrowed securities, their eventual repurchase by the short seller at a lower price and their return to the lender.
  • Speculation: The process of buying investment vehicles in which the future value and level of expected earnings are highly uncertain.
  • Stock Splits: Wholesale changes in the number of shares. For example, a two for one split doubles the number of shares but does not change the share capital.
  • Subordinated Bond: An issue that ranks after secured debt, debenture, and other bonds, and after some general creditors in its claim on assets and earnings. Owners of this kind of bond stand last in line among creditors, but before equity holders, when an issuer fails financially.
  • Substantial Shareholder: A person acquires an interest in relevant share capital equal to, or exceeding, 10% of the share capital.
  • Support Level: A price at which buyers consistently outnumber sellers, preventing further price falls.
  • Technical Analysis: A method of evaluating securities by relying on the assumption that market data, such as charts of price, volume, and open interest, can help predict future (usually short-term) market trends. Contrasted with fundamental analysis which involves the study of financial accounts and other information about the company. (It is an attempt to predict movements in security prices from their trading volume history.)
  • Time Horizon: The duration of time an investment is intended for.
  • Trading Rules: Stipulation of parameters for opening and intra-day quotations, permissible spreads according to the prices of securities available for trading and board lot sizes for each security.
  • Trust Deed: A formal document that creates a trust. It states the purpose and terms of the name of the trustees and beneficiaries.
  • Underlying Security: The security subject to being purchased or sold upon exercise of the option contract.
  • Valuation: Process by which an investor determines the worth of a security using risk and return concept.
  • Warrant: An option for a longer period of time giving the buyer the right to buy a number of shares of common stock in company at a specified price for a specified period of time.
  • Window Dressing: Financial adjustments made solely for the purpose of accounting presentation, normally at the time of auditing of company accounts.
  • Yield (Internal rate of Return): The compound annual rate of return earned by an investment
  • Yield to Maturity: The rate of return yield by a bond held to maturity when both compound interest payments and the investor’s capital gain or loss on the security are taken into account.
Zero Coupon Bond: A bond with no coupon that is sold at a deep discount from par value.